Instead of a longer article, I went for one article per structure.
Here are the others:
HEELS / HEEL BUTTRESS
The heels are strong pillars supporting the back of the foot, made of wall.
They should have a decent volume compared to the rest of the foot, be strong and parallel to the wall at the toe (dorsal wall). Ideally, they should be almost identical on the same foot (height, thickness, horn quality, orientation, size, location in the foot – not too far forward) but also on both feet (front or back).
They play a major role in impact management, together with the frog, as well as weight bearing in general.
Located above the heels, they should form nice, supple and round “balls” at the back of the foot. They should sit softly above the heels and have relaxed skin between them.
They house the lateral cartilages and the digital cushion. The way the heel bulbs look and feel give you an indication on how healthy the cushion and cartilages are.